Density Based Clustering :
Density-based clustering is a method of clustering data points based on their density, or the number of points within a given area or region. This method is particularly useful for identifying clusters of data points that may not have a clear or well-defined shape, such as clusters that are elongated or have irregular boundaries.
One example of a density-based clustering algorithm is DBSCAN (Density-Based Spatial Clustering of Applications with Noise), which uses a set of parameters to define the density of a cluster and to identify which points are considered to be part of a cluster. The algorithm works by starting with a seed point, which is a point that is considered to be part of a cluster, and then expanding the cluster by adding all points within a specified radius of the seed point. This process continues until all points within the cluster are connected, and the cluster is considered to be complete.
Another example of a density-based clustering algorithm is OPTICS (Ordering Points To Identify the Clustering Structure), which uses a similar approach to DBSCAN but also incorporates a measure of reachability, or the distance between two points, to identify clusters of data points. This algorithm works by first creating an ordered list of data points, where each point is assigned a reachability distance based on its distance to other points in the dataset. The algorithm then identifies clusters by examining the reachability distances of each point and identifying points with a reachability distance below a specified threshold, which indicates that the point is part of a cluster.
Overall, density-based clustering algorithms are useful for identifying clusters of data points that may not have a clear or well-defined shape, and for identifying clusters within large datasets where other methods may be less effective. These algorithms can also be useful for identifying outliers or noise in a dataset, as points that do not belong to any cluster are typically considered to be noise.