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Lynden-Bell method

Lynden-Bell method : The Lynden-Bell method, also known as the Lynden-Bell statistical mechanics, is a mathematical approach to understanding the behavior of complex systems. It was developed by British astrophysicist Donald Lynden-Bell in the 1960s and has been widely used in various fields, including physics, chemistry, and biology. One of the key principles of the […]

Lyapunov exponent

Lyapunov exponent : The Lyapunov exponent is a mathematical concept that quantifies the rate at which a system diverges or converges over time. This concept is commonly used in the study of chaotic systems, as it helps to identify whether a system is chaotic or stable. One example of the Lyapunov exponent is in the […]


L-statistic : The L-statistic is a statistical measure used to evaluate the performance of a linear regression model. It is calculated by taking the sum of the squared residuals of the model, which is the difference between the observed values and the predicted values of the model. One example of the use of the L-statistic […]

Long-range dependence

Long-range dependence : Long-range dependence is a phenomenon where the values of a time series are correlated over long periods of time. This means that the behavior of a time series in the present can be influenced by its behavior in the past, and vice versa. One example of long-range dependence is the stock market. […]

Long memory processes

Long memory processes : Long memory processes, also known as long-range dependence or persistence, refer to the tendency for a time series to exhibit significant autocorrelation over long periods of time. This means that the current value of a time series is heavily influenced by its past values, even those from far back in time. […]

Longitudinal Data

Longitudinal Data : Longitudinal data is a type of data that is collected over a period of time, often involving multiple observations of the same individuals or units. This type of data allows researchers to track changes or trends within a population over time, providing valuable insights into the dynamics of a given phenomenon. One […]

Long short-term memory (LSTM)

Long short-term memory (LSTM) : Long short-term memory (LSTM) is a type of recurrent neural network (RNN) architecture specifically designed to address the vanishing gradient problem in RNNs. This problem occurs when the network is unable to remember information from long sequences due to the decreasing influence of previous input over time, leading to poor […]

Lomb periodogram

Lomb periodogram : The Lomb periodogram is a type of spectral estimation method used to identify significant periodic signals in a time series data set. It is based on the concept of least-squares fitting of sinusoidal functions to the data, and is commonly used in fields such as astronomy, geophysics, and signal processing. One of […]

Logrank test

Logrank test : The logrank test is a statistical test used to compare the survival rates of two or more groups. This test is commonly used in medical research to evaluate the effectiveness of a new treatment or intervention on a particular condition or disease. For example, a study may be conducted to evaluate the […]

Log-linear models

Log-linear models : A log-linear model is a statistical method used to analyze and understand the relationship between multiple categorical variables. It is a type of regression analysis that is used to model the relationship between two or more variables, where the dependent variable is a logarithmic transformation of the independent variable. One example of […]