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Fractal : A fractal is a mathematical concept that describes a pattern that repeats itself at different scales. It is a self-similar structure that can be found in a wide range of natural phenomena, such as snowflakes, mountains, and coastlines. One example of a fractal is the Mandelbrot set. This is a mathematical object that […]

Fourier Series

Fourier Series : The Fourier series is a mathematical tool used to represent periodic functions as the sum of a series of sines and cosines. This allows for the analysis and manipulation of complex periodic signals, such as those found in sound and electrical signals. One example of the application of the Fourier series is […]


Forecast : Forecasting is the process of making predictions about future events or outcomes based on historical data and trends. It is commonly used in a variety of industries and fields, including finance, weather, and politics, to make informed decisions and plan for the future. One example of forecasting is in the field of finance. […]


Folium : Folium is a powerful Python library that allows users to create beautiful and interactive leaflet maps. This library utilizes the Leaflet.js JavaScript library, which is widely used for creating web-based maps. One of the most powerful features of folium is its ability to visualize spatial data on a map. For example, if we […]


Flowchart : A flowchart is a graphical or symbolic representation of a process. It shows the steps, or actions, involved in a process, and the order in which they occur. Flowcharts are often used in business and technical writing to help readers understand complex processes, and to make them easier to follow. One common example […]

Five-number Summary

Five-number Summary : A five-number summary is a method of summarizing a dataset by providing a concise description of its key features. It consists of the minimum value, the maximum value, the median, the first quartile, and the third quartile. These five numbers are used to provide a rough sketch of the data and to […]

Fitted Value

Fitted Value : Fitted values are values that are predicted or estimated by a statistical model. In other words, fitted values are the predicted values that the model provides for a given set of input data. One example of fitted values is in regression analysis. For instance, let’s say we are trying to model the […]

Finite State Machine

Finite State Machine : A finite state machine (FSM) is a mathematical model of computation used to design algorithms and digital logic. It consists of a finite number of states, which are represented by circles in a state diagram, and a set of transitions between those states, which are represented by arrows. A finite state […]

Fibonacci Distribution

Fibonacci Distribution : The Fibonacci distribution is a probability distribution that is based on the Fibonacci sequence. The Fibonacci sequence is a series of numbers that starts with 0 and 1, and each subsequent number is the sum of the previous two numbers. For example, the first few numbers in the Fibonacci sequence are 0, […]


F-score : F-score is a metric used to evaluate the performance of a model in classification tasks. It is a weighted average of precision and recall, where precision is the number of true positives divided by the sum of true positives and false positives, and recall is the number of true positives divided by the […]