Clustering :

Clustering is a machine learning technique that involves grouping a set of data points into distinct clusters based on their similarity. This allows for better understanding and analysis of the data by finding patterns and relationships within the data.
One example of clustering is in customer segmentation. A company may have a large dataset of customer information, including demographics, purchasing history, and preferences. By using clustering, the company can group customers into distinct clusters based on their similar characteristics and behaviors. For instance, one cluster may be high-income customers who frequently purchase luxury items, while another cluster may be budget-conscious customers who primarily purchase necessities. By identifying these distinct clusters, the company can tailor their marketing and sales strategies to better target and engage with each customer segment.
Another example of clustering is in fraud detection. A financial institution may have a dataset of transactions and customer information. By using clustering, the institution can group transactions into clusters based on their similarity in characteristics such as amount, location, and time. This can help identify potential fraudulent transactions, as they may be outliers or have significantly different characteristics compared to the other clusters. For instance, a cluster of small transactions at local stores may be considered normal, while a cluster of large transactions at foreign merchants may be flagged as potentially fraudulent.
Overall, clustering can be a valuable tool for uncovering patterns and relationships within a dataset. By grouping data points into distinct clusters, it allows for better understanding and analysis of the data, leading to improved decision making and insights.