Noise :

Noise in data refers to random variations or errors in the measurements or observations that are made. These random variations can arise from a variety of sources, such as measurement errors, background noise, or interference from other sources. Noise can have a significant impact on the accuracy and reliability of data, and it is important to identify and account for noise when analyzing or interpreting data.
One example of noise in data is measurement error. Measurement error occurs when the instruments or tools used to collect data are not perfectly accurate or precise. For example, if you are using a ruler to measure the length of an object, the ruler may not be perfectly straight or the markings may not be perfectly spaced, leading to some degree of measurement error. This error can be random and can vary from one measurement to the next.
Another example of noise in data is background noise. Background noise refers to any extraneous or unrelated signals or sources of interference that can affect the accuracy of data. For example, if you are collecting data on the temperature inside a room using a thermometer, the presence of other sources of heat or cold, such as a heating or cooling system, a window that is open or closed, or the presence of people or pets, can all contribute to background noise and affect the accuracy of the temperature measurements.
To reduce the impact of noise on data, it is important to use accurate and precise instruments and tools for data collection, to control for extraneous variables and sources of interference, and to use statistical techniques to account for and minimize the effects of noise. By doing so, it is possible to obtain more reliable and accurate data, which can be used to draw more reliable conclusions and make more informed decisions.