One-sided test :
A one-sided test, also known as a one-tailed test or directional test, is a statistical hypothesis test in which the null hypothesis is tested against a specific alternative hypothesis that states that the population parameter is greater than, less than, or not equal to a certain value. The direction of the alternative hypothesis, whether it is greater than or less than a certain value, determines the direction of the test. One-sided tests are used to test specific research hypotheses or to confirm a prediction about a population parameter.
One-sided tests are used when the researcher has a specific research hypothesis in mind and wants to test whether the observed data supports this hypothesis. For example, a researcher may want to test whether a new drug is more effective at reducing blood pressure than a placebo. In this case, the researcher would set up a one-sided test with the null hypothesis that the drug and the placebo are equally effective at reducing blood pressure, and the alternative hypothesis that the drug is more effective than the placebo.
Another example of a one-sided test is when a researcher wants to confirm a prediction about a population parameter. For example, a researcher may want to confirm that the average height of adult men in a certain population is greater than 5 feet 10 inches. In this case, the null hypothesis would be that the average height of adult men in the population is less than or equal to 5 feet 10 inches, and the alternative hypothesis would be that the average height of adult men in the population is greater than 5 feet 10 inches.
One-sided tests have several advantages and disadvantages. One advantage is that they allow the researcher to test a specific research hypothesis or confirm a prediction about a population parameter. This can be useful when the researcher has a clear idea of what they are looking for and wants to test a specific hypothesis.
However, one-sided tests also have several disadvantages. One disadvantage is that they are less powerful than two-sided tests, which test whether the population parameter is different from a certain value (rather than greater than or less than a certain value). This means that one-sided tests may have a higher probability of a type II error, where the null hypothesis is rejected even though it is true.
Another disadvantage of one-sided tests is that they are less flexible than two-sided tests, as they can only test a specific research hypothesis or prediction. This can be a problem if the researcher is unsure of what they are looking for or if the data do not support the specific research hypothesis or prediction.
In conclusion, one-sided tests are statistical hypothesis tests that are used to test specific research hypotheses or confirm predictions about population parameters. They have the advantage of allowing the researcher to test a specific research hypothesis or prediction, but they are less powerful and less flexible than two-sided tests.