## Probability :

Probability is a branch of mathematics that deals with the likelihood of events occurring. It is used to determine the chances of certain outcomes occurring in a given situation. Probability is expressed as a number between 0 and 1, with 0 indicating that an event is impossible and 1 indicating that it is certain to happen.

One example of probability is flipping a coin. When flipping a coin, there are two possible outcomes: heads or tails. The probability of getting heads is 1/2, or 50%. This means that if you flip a coin 100 times, you can expect to get heads 50 times and tails 50 times.

Another example of probability is rolling a die. When rolling a die, there are six possible outcomes: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. The probability of rolling a 4 is 1/6, or 16.67%. This means that if you roll a die 100 times, you can expect to roll a 4 about 16 times.

Probability can also be expressed as a percentage or a fraction. For example, the probability of flipping heads on a coin is often expressed as 50%. This means that there is a 50% chance that the outcome of the coin flip will be heads. Similarly, the probability of rolling a 4 on a die can be expressed as 1/6, or 16.67%. This means that there is a 16.67% chance that the outcome of the die roll will be a 4.

Probability can be calculated using the formula:

Probability = Number of desired outcomes / Total number of outcomes

For example, to calculate the probability of flipping heads on a coin, you would divide the number of desired outcomes (1) by the total number of outcomes (2). This would give you a probability of 1/2, or 50%.

To calculate the probability of rolling a 4 on a die, you would divide the number of desired outcomes (1) by the total number of outcomes (6). This would give you a probability of 1/6, or 16.67%.

Probability can also be affected by certain conditions or factors. For example, the probability of flipping heads on a coin may be different if the coin is weighted or if it has been flipped a certain number of times. Similarly, the probability of rolling a 4 on a die may be affected by the type of die being used or the way it is rolled.

Probability is an important concept in many fields, including finance, biology, and sports. It is used to help make predictions and decisions based on the likelihood of certain outcomes occurring. Understanding probability can help you make informed decisions and understand the chances of certain events occurring in the future.