Multinomial distribution :
The multinomial distribution is a probability distribution that describes the probability of observing a certain combination of outcomes in a series of independent and identically distributed trials. In other words, it is a generalization of the binomial distribution, which only considers two possible outcomes (i.e., success and failure) in each trial.
For example, consider a situation where we toss a fair six-sided die three times. The possible outcomes of each toss are 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6. The total number of possible combinations of outcomes is 6^3 = 216. The multinomial distribution allows us to calculate the probability of each possible combination of outcomes.
Another example of the multinomial distribution is in a medical study where researchers are studying the effectiveness of a new drug on a sample of 100 patients. The study aims to investigate the effects of the drug on three different health outcomes: improvement, no change, and worsening. The researchers can use the multinomial distribution to calculate the probability of each possible combination of outcomes in the sample of 100 patients (e.g., the probability of observing 20 patients with improvement, 50 with no change, and 30 with worsening).
In general, the multinomial distribution is useful for analyzing situations where there are more than two possible outcomes in each trial and the outcome of each trial is independent of the others. It can be used in a wide range of fields, including medicine, finance, engineering, and social sciences. The multinomial distribution is often used in conjunction with other statistical techniques, such as hypothesis testing and regression analysis, to make more informed decisions and predictions.