## Optimization methods :

Optimization methods, also known as maxima and minima methods, are techniques used to find the maximum or minimum value of a function. These methods are used in a wide range of fields, including mathematics, engineering, and economics, to solve problems that involve maximizing or minimizing some quantity.

There are two main types of optimization methods: local and global. Local optimization methods are used to find the maximum or minimum value of a function within a specific range or region, while global optimization methods are used to find the maximum or minimum value of a function over the entire domain of the function.

Two common optimization methods are the gradient descent and the Newton-Raphson method.

The gradient descent method is a local optimization method that is used to find the minimum value of a function. It works by starting at a random point on the function and iteratively moving in the direction of the steepest descent until it reaches the local minimum. The algorithm uses the gradient of the function, which is a vector of partial derivatives, to determine the direction of the steepest descent.

The Newton-Raphson method is a global optimization method that is used to find the root of a function, which is the point where the function intersects the x-axis. It works by starting at a guess for the root and iteratively improving the guess using the derivative of the function. The algorithm uses the second derivative of the function to determine the curvature of the function and to adjust the guess accordingly.

In conclusion, optimization methods are used to find the maximum or minimum value of a function, and there are two main types: local and global. Two common optimization methods are the gradient descent and the Newton-Raphson method. The gradient descent method is a local optimization method that is used to find the minimum value of a function, while the Newton-Raphson method is a global optimization method that is used to find the root of a function.