## Levene test :

The Levene test is a statistical test used to assess the equality of variances across different groups or samples. It is a non-parametric test, meaning it does not assume a specific distribution of the data. This makes it useful for testing the assumptions of other parametric tests, such as the t-test or ANOVA.

One example of the Levene test is in the analysis of a study comparing the effectiveness of two different treatments for a medical condition. The study collects data on the improvement in symptoms for each treatment group, and the researcher wants to determine if the two groups have equal variances in their symptom improvement scores. The Levene test can be used to test this assumption, and if the variances are found to be unequal, the researcher can use a more appropriate test that accounts for unequal variances.

Another example of the Levene test is in the analysis of a survey on job satisfaction among employees in different departments of a company. The survey collects data on the satisfaction levels of employees in each department, and the researcher wants to determine if the satisfaction levels have equal variances across departments. The Levene test can be used to test this assumption, and if the variances are found to be unequal, the researcher can use a more appropriate test that accounts for unequal variances.

To conduct a Levene test, the researcher first collects data on the variable of interest (symptom improvement scores or job satisfaction levels) for each group or sample. The researcher then calculates the mean and standard deviation for each group, as well as the overall mean and standard deviation for the entire sample.

Next, the researcher calculates the absolute deviation of each data point from its group mean, and squares these deviations to obtain the sum of squares within groups (SSW). The researcher then calculates the absolute deviation of each group mean from the overall mean, and squares these deviations to obtain the sum of squares between groups (SSB).

Finally, the researcher divides the SSW by the degrees of freedom within groups, and divides the SSB by the degrees of freedom between groups. These values are used to calculate the Levene test statistic, which is compared to a critical value from a table of critical values for the Levene test. If the Levene test statistic is greater than the critical value, the researcher can conclude that the variances are unequal across groups.

In conclusion, the Levene test is a useful statistical test for assessing the equality of variances across different groups or samples. It can be used in a variety of settings, such as medical studies or surveys, and can help researchers determine the appropriate statistical tests to use in their analyses.