## Irreducible chain :

An irreducible Markov chain is a type of mathematical model known as a Markov chain, which is a way of representing transitions between a set of states. In an irreducible Markov chain, it is possible to get from any state to any other state in a finite number of steps.

One example of an irreducible Markov chain is a game of chess. In this game, there are a set of possible states that the game can be in at any given time, such as “white’s turn,” “black’s turn,” or “game over.” It is possible to move from any of these states to any other state in a finite number of steps. For example, if the game is in the state “white’s turn,” it is possible to move to the state “black’s turn” by making a move with one of white’s pieces.

Another example of an irreducible Markov chain is a network of roads connecting different cities. In this case, the states are the different cities, and it is possible to move from any city to any other city in a finite number of steps by following the roads. For example, if the current state is the city of San Francisco, it is possible to move to the city of Los Angeles by following a series of roads that connect the two cities.

In general, an irreducible Markov chain is a mathematical model that represents transitions between a set of states, where it is possible to move from any state to any other state in a finite number of steps. This property of an irreducible Markov chain makes it a useful tool for modeling a wide variety of systems, including games, networks, and other types of systems where transitions between states are important.