## Estimating Functions :

Estimating functions are mathematical tools that are used to approximate the values of a given function based on a set of known data points. These functions are commonly used in statistics and data analysis to make predictions about future data or to understand the underlying relationships between different variables.

One example of an estimating function is the linear regression model. This model uses a linear equation to fit a line to a set of data points, with the goal of minimizing the sum of the squared differences between the observed data and the fitted line. The resulting equation can then be used to make predictions about the value of the dependent variable for new data points.

For instance, consider a dataset containing the weight and height of a group of people. Using a linear regression model, we can fit a line to this data that describes the relationship between weight and height. This line can then be used to predict the weight of a person given their height, or vice versa.

Another example of an estimating function is the k-nearest neighbors algorithm. This algorithm is commonly used in classification problems, where the goal is to predict the class of a new data point based on its similarity to other data points in the dataset.

The k-nearest neighbors algorithm works by finding the k data points in the dataset that are closest to the new data point, based on some measure of similarity. The predicted class of the new data point is then determined by the majority class of the k nearest neighbors.

For instance, consider a dataset containing the height, weight, and gender of a group of people. Using the k-nearest neighbors algorithm, we can predict the gender of a new person based on their height and weight by finding the k closest data points and determining the majority gender among them.

In summary, estimating functions are mathematical tools that are used to approximate the values of a given function based on a set of known data points. These functions are commonly used in statistics and data analysis to make predictions about future data or to understand the underlying relationships between different variables. Examples of estimating functions include linear regression and the k-nearest neighbors algorithm.