## Convex Hull :

A convex hull is a geometric concept that describes the shape formed by the set of all points that are either on the boundary of a given set of points or are within the set. It is a fundamental concept in computational geometry, with applications in computer vision, robotics, and machine learning.

The convex hull is the smallest convex shape that contains all of the points in the given set. It can be visualized as the outermost boundary of a balloon that is inflated around the given set of points. This boundary is a series of line segments that connect the points on the hull in a specific order, forming a closed loop.

To calculate the convex hull of a set of points, there are several algorithms that can be used. One common algorithm is the Jarvis March, also known as the Gift Wrapping algorithm. This algorithm starts with an arbitrary point on the hull and then iteratively adds the next point on the hull by finding the point that has the smallest angle relative to the previous point. This process continues until the starting point is reached again, forming the convex hull.

Another algorithm for calculating the convex hull is the Quickhull algorithm, which uses a divide-and-conquer approach. This algorithm starts by dividing the set of points into two subsets using a line that passes through the points with the minimum and maximum x-coordinates. The convex hulls of these two subsets are then calculated recursively, and the resulting hulls are merged to form the overall convex hull.

The convex hull has several important properties that make it useful in various applications. One of these properties is that it is always a convex shape, meaning that any line segment connecting two points on the hull will always lie completely within the hull. This property makes it easy to determine whether a point is on the boundary of the hull or within the hull.

Additionally, the convex hull has the property of being the smallest convex set that contains all of the points in the given set. This means that any point on the convex hull must be a vertex of the hull, and any point within the hull must be on the line segment connecting two vertices of the hull.

The convex hull is also a useful tool for performing geometric operations on a set of points. For example, the area of the convex hull can be calculated by dividing the hull into triangles and summing the areas of the triangles. This can be useful for determining the size or density of a set of points.

In computer vision and robotics, the convex hull is often used for object recognition and collision avoidance. By calculating the convex hull of a set of points representing an object, the overall shape and size of the object can be determined. This information can then be used to identify the object and avoid collisions with other objects in the environment.

In machine learning, the convex hull is often used to visualize the decision boundaries of a classifier. By plotting the points in different classes and calculating the convex hull of each class, the boundaries between the classes can be visualized and analyzed. This can be useful for understanding the behavior of the classifier and improving its performance.

Overall, the convex hull is a powerful and versatile tool in computational geometry with numerous applications in computer vision, robotics, and machine learning. By calculating the shape and properties of the convex hull, a wealth of information about a set of points can be obtained and used for various purposes.