Association :

Association is a type of relationship that exists between two or more entities. This relationship can be represented using various techniques in data science, such as correlation or the construction of association rules.
One common example of association is the relationship between the items that a customer purchases at a grocery store. For instance, a customer who frequently buys bread and milk is likely to also buy butter. In this case, the items “bread”, “milk”, and “butter” are associated because they are often purchased together.
Association can be quantified using a metric called support, which measures the frequency with which a set of items appear together in a dataset. In the example above, the support for the set of items {bread, milk, butter} would be the number of transactions in which all three items were purchased.
Another way to represent association is through the use of association rules. These rules express the relationship between items in the form of an if-then statement. For example, an association rule for the grocery store dataset might be “IF a customer buys bread and milk, THEN they are likely to also buy butter”.
These rules can be used to make predictions about future behavior. In the example above, the association rule can be used to predict that a customer who buys bread and milk is likely to also buy butter.
Association rules can also be evaluated using metrics such as confidence and lift. Confidence measures the likelihood that the rule will hold true, while lift measures the degree to which the presence of one item in a set affects the likelihood of the other items in the set.
In summary, association is a relationship between entities that can be represented using techniques like correlation and association rules. These techniques can be used to make predictions and evaluate the strength of the relationship between the entities.