## Adjacency Matrix :

An adjacency matrix is a square matrix used to represent a finite graph. The elements of the matrix indicate whether pairs of vertices are adjacent or not in the graph. In other words, the matrix is used to show the relationship between the vertices of a graph.

For example, consider a graph with four vertices, labeled A, B, C, and D. The adjacency matrix for this graph would be:

[A B C D]

[A 0 1 0 1]

[B 1 0 1 0]

[C 0 1 0 1]

[D 1 0 1 0]

In this matrix, a value of 1 indicates that there is an edge between the corresponding vertices, while a value of 0 indicates that there is no edge. For example, the value in the second row and third column, 1, indicates that there is an edge between vertices B and C.

Adjacency matrices have several advantages over other representations of graphs. For one, they are simple and easy to understand, making them useful for introductory lessons on graphs. Additionally, adjacency matrices are easy to manipulate, allowing for quick calculations of common graph properties such as the degree of a vertex or the number of edges in the graph.

One disadvantage of adjacency matrices is that they can become large and cumbersome for graphs with a large number of vertices. This is because the size of an adjacency matrix is proportional to the square of the number of vertices in the graph. For example, a graph with 10 vertices would have an adjacency matrix with 100 elements, while a graph with 100 vertices would have an adjacency matrix with 10,000 elements.

Another disadvantage of adjacency matrices is that they do not easily represent certain types of graphs, such as weighted or directed graphs. In these cases, other representations such as adjacency lists or edge lists may be more suitable.

Despite these disadvantages, adjacency matrices remain a useful tool for representing and analyzing graphs. They are often used in graph algorithms and data structures, as well as in applications such as network analysis and computer vision.

For instance, one common application of adjacency matrices is in finding the shortest path between two vertices in a graph. This can be done using the Floyd-Warshall algorithm, which uses the adjacency matrix to compute the shortest path between all pairs of vertices in the graph.

Another example of the use of adjacency matrices is in the calculation of graph centrality measures, such as degree centrality or betweenness centrality. These measures are used to identify the most important vertices in a graph, and can be calculated using the adjacency matrix to determine the number of edges connected to each vertex.

Overall, adjacency matrices are a simple and effective way to represent and analyze finite graphs. They are easy to understand and manipulate, making them a valuable tool in a variety of applications.